101 amazing facts about the earth
||The biggest earthquake, the largest desert,
even how our planet sizes up — the answers are right here.
|NASA's "Blue Marble" image of Earth, with
the moon in the background, was created by combining many satellite images
of the planet's surface and surroundings.
By Robert Roy Britt
July 22 — We live on a sphere of extremes and oddities. In fact it’s not
really a sphere, but it is a wild planet, mottled with deadly volcanoes, rattled
by killer earthquakes, drenched in disastrous deluges. But do you know which
were the worst?
SOME OF EARTH’S valleys dip below sea level. Mountains soar into thin air.
Can you name the lowest spot? The tallest peak? Do you know how far it is to the
center of the planet or what’s there?
Where are the planet’s hottest, coldest, driest and windiest places?
The following list of Earth’s extremes and other amazing facts is presented
in Q&A format, so you can cover the answers to test your knowledge of the home
planet. Sources include the U.S. Geological Survey and the National Oceanic and
Atmospheric Administration, with other Space.com reporting.
1. What is the hottest place on Earth?
Count one wrong if you guessed Death Valley in California. True enough on
many days. But El Azizia in Libya recorded a temperature of 136 degrees
Fahrenheit (57.8 Celsius) on Sept. 13, 1922 — the hottest ever measured. In
Death Valley, it got up to 134 Fahrenheit on July 10, 1913.
2. And the coldest place around here?
Far and away, the coldest temperature ever measured on Earth was -129
Fahrenheit (-89 Celsius) at Vostok, Antarctica, on July 21, 1983.
3. What makes thunder?
If you thought, “Lightning!” then hats off to you. But I had a more
illuminating answer in mind. The air around a lightning bolt is superheated to
about five times the temperature of the sun. This sudden heating causes the air
to expand faster than the speed of sound, which compresses the air and forms a
shock wave; we hear it as thunder.
4. Can rocks float?
In a volcanic eruption, the violent separation of gas from lava produces a
“frothy” rock called pumice, loaded with gas bubbles. Some of it can float,
geologists say. I’ve never seen this happen, and I’m thankful for that.
5. Can rocks grow?
Yes, but observing the process is less interesting than watching paint dry.
Rocks called iron-manganese crusts grow on mountains under the sea. The crusts
precipitate material slowly from seawater, growing about 1 millimeter every
million years. Your fingernails grow about the same amount every two weeks.
6. How much space dust falls to Earth each year?
Estimates vary, but the USGS says at least 1,000 million grams, or roughly
1,000 tons of material enters the atmosphere every year and makes its way to
Earth’s surface. One group of scientists claims microbes rain down from space,
too, and that extraterrestrial organisms are responsible for flu epidemics.
There’s been no proof of this, and I’m not holding my breath.
7. How far does regular dust blow in the wind?
A 1999 study showed that African dust finds its way to Florida and can help
push parts of the state over the prescribed air quality limit for particulate
matter set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The dust is kicked up by
high winds in North Africa and carried as high as 20,000 feet (6,100 meters),
where it’s caught up in the trade winds and carried across the sea. Dust from
China makes its way to North America, too.
8. Where is the world’s highest waterfall?
The water of Angel Falls in Venezuela drops 3,212 feet (979 meters).
9. What two great American cities are destined to merge?
The San Andreas fault, which runs north-south, is slipping at a rate of
about 2 inches (5 centimeters) per year, causing Los Angeles to move towards San
Francisco. Scientists forecast L.A. will be a suburb of the City by the Bay in
about 15 million years.
10. Is Earth a sphere?
Because the planet rotates and is more flexible than you might imagine, it
bulges at the midsection, creating a sort of pumpkin shape. The bulge was
lessening for centuries but now, suddenly, it is growing, a recent study showed.
Accelerated melting of Earth’s glaciers is taking the blame for the gain in
11. What would a 100-pound person weigh on Mars?
The gravity on Mars is 38 percent of that found on Earth at sea level. So a
100-pound person on Earth would weigh 38 pounds on Mars. Based on NASA’s present
plans, it’ll be decades before this assumption can be observationally proved,
12. How long is a Martian year?
It’s a year long, if you’re from Mars. To an earthling, it’s nearly twice as
long. The Red Planet takes 687 Earth days to go around the sun — compared with
365 days for Earth. Taking into account Mars’ different rotational time (see No.
13 below) calendars on Mars would be about 670 days long with some leap days
needed to keep things square. If you find one, please mail it to me. I’m curious
how they worked out the months, given they have two moons. (The initial
publication of this fact mistakenly said a Mars calendar would have 687 days.)
13. How long is the average Martian day?
A Martian can sleep (or work) an extra half-hour every day compared to you.
Mars days are 24 hours and 37 minutes long, compared with 23 hours, 56 minutes
on Earth. A day on any planet in our solar system is determined by how long it
takes the world to spin once on its axis, making the sun appear to rise in the
morning and sending it down in the evening.
14. What is the largest volcano?
The Mauna Loa volcano in Hawaii holds the title here on Earth. It rises more
than 50,000 feet (9.5 miles or 15.2 kilometers) above its base, which sits under
the surface of the sea. But that’s all volcanic chump change. Olympus Mons on
Mars rises 16 miles (26 kilometers) into the Martian sky. Its base would almost
cover the entire state of Arizona.
15. What was the deadliest known earthquake?
The world’s deadliest recorded earthquake occurred in 1557 in central China.
It struck a region where most people lived in caves carved from soft rock. The
dwellings collapsed, killing an estimated 830,000 people. In 1976 another deadly
temblor struck Tangshan, China. More than 250,000 people were killed.
16. What was the strongest earthquake in recent times?
A 1960 Chilean earthquake, which occurred off the coast, had a magnitude of
9.6 and broke a fault more than 1,000 miles (1,600 kilometers) long. An
earthquake like that under a major city would challenge the best construction
17. Which earthquake was more catastrophic: Kobe, Japan or Northridge,
The 1994 Northridge earthquake had a magnitude of 6.7 and was responsible
for approximately 60 deaths, 9,000 injuries and more than $40 billion in damage.
The Kobe earthquake of 1995 was magnitude 6.8 and killed 5,530 people. There
were 37,000 injuries and more than $100 billion in economic loss.
18. How far is it to the center of the earth?
The distance from the surface of Earth to the center is about 3,963 miles
(6,378 kilometers). Much of Earth is fluid. The mostly solid skin of the planet
is only 41 miles (66 kilometers) thick — thinner than the skin of an apple,
19. What is the highest mountain?
Climbers who brave Mount Everest in the Nepal-Tibet section of the Himalayas
reach 29,035 feet (nearly 9 kilometers) above sea level. Its height was revised
upward by 7 feet based on measurements made in 1999 using the satellite-based
Global Positioning System.
20. Has the moon always been so close?
It used to be much closer! A billion years ago, the moon was in a tighter
orbit, taking just 20 days to go around us and make a month. A day on Earth back
then was only 18 hours long. The moon is still moving away — about 1.6 inches (4
centimeters) a year. Meanwhile, Earth’s rotation is slowing down, lengthening
our days. In the distant future, a day will be 960 hours long! (Find out why.)
21. Where is the lowest dry point on Earth?
The shore of the Dead Sea in the Middle East is about 1,300 feet (400
meters) below sea level. Not even a close second is Bad Water in Death Valley,
Calif., at a mere 282 feet below sea level.
22. Good thing California isn’t sinking further, right?
Actually parts of it are, which is so interesting that I snuck this
non-question onto the list. In a problem repeated elsewhere in the country, the
pumping of natural underground water reservoirs in California is causing the
ground to sink up to 4 inches (11 centimeters) per year in places. Water and
sewage systems may soon be threatened.
23. What is the longest river?
The Nile River in Africa is 4,160 miles (6,695 kilometers) long.
24. What is the most earthquake-prone state in the United States?
Alaska experiences a magnitude 7 earthquake almost every year, and a
magnitude 8 or greater earthquake on average every 14 years. Florida and North
Dakota get the fewest earthquakes in the states, even fewer than New York.
25. What’s the driest place on Earth?
A place called Arica, in Chile, gets just 0.03 inches (0.76 millimeters) of
rain per year. At that rate, it would take a century to fill a coffee cup.
26. What causes a landslide?
Intense rainfall over a short period of time can trigger shallow,
fast-moving mud and debris flows. Slow, steady rainfall over a long period of
time may trigger deeper, slow-moving landslides. Different materials behave
differently, too. Every year as much as $2 billion in landslide damage occurs in
the United States. In a record-breaking storm in the San Francisco area in
January 1982, some 18,000 debris flows were triggered during a single night!
Property damage was over $66 million, and 25 people died.
27. How fast can mud flow?
Debris flows are like mud avalanches that can move at speeds in excess of
100 mph (160 kilometers per hour).
28. Do things inside Earth flow?
You bet. In fact, scientists found in 1999 that molten material in and
around Earth’s core moves in vortices, swirling pockets whose dynamics are
similar to tornadoes and hurricanes. And as you’ll learn later in this list, the
planet’s core moves in other strange ways, too.
29. What is the wettest place on Earth?
Lloro, Colombia, averages 523.6 inches of rainfall a year, or more than 40
feet (13 meters). That’s about 10 times more than fairly wet major cities in
Europe or the United States.
30. Does Earth go through phases, like the moon?
From Mars, Earth would be seen to go through distinct phases (just as we see
Venus change phases). Earth is inside the orbit of Mars, and as the two planets
travel around the sun, sunlight would strike our home planet from different
angles during the year. Earth phases can be seen in recent photographs taken by
Mars Global Surveyor and the European Mars Express.
31. What is the largest canyon?
The Grand Canyon is billed as the world’s largest canyon system. Its main
branch is 277 miles (446 kilometers) long. But let’s compare. Valles Marineris
on Mars extends for about 3,000 miles (4,800 kilometers). If it were added to a
U.S. map, it would stretch from New York City to Los Angeles. In places this
vast scar on the Martian surface is 5 miles (8 kilometers) deep.
32. What is the deepest canyon in the United States?
Over the eons, the Snake River dug Hell’s Canyon along the Oregon-Idaho
border. It is more than 8,000 feet (2.4 kilometers) deep. In contrast, the Grand
Canyon is less than 6,000 feet deep — a bit more than a mile.
33. Is Earth the largest rocky planet in the solar system?
Just barely! Earth’s diameter at the equator is 7,926 miles (12,756
kilometers). Venus is 7,521 miles (12,104 kilometers) wide. Mercury and Mars,
the other two inner rocky planets, are much smaller. Pluto is rocky, too, but
it’s comparatively tiny (and some say it is not a planet at all).
34. How many of Earth’s volcanoes are known to have erupted in historic
About 540 volcanoes on land are known. No one knows how many undersea
volcanoes have erupted through history.
35. Is air mostly oxygen?
Earth’s atmosphere is actually about 80 percent nitrogen. Most of the rest
is oxygen, with tiny amounts of other stuff thrown in.
36. What is the highest waterfall in the United States?
Yosemite Falls in California is 2,425 feet (739 meters).
37. What percentage of the world’s water is in the oceans?
About 97 percent. Oceans make up about two-thirds of Earth’s surface, which
means that when the next asteroid hits the planet, odds are good it will splash
38. Which two land masses contain the vast majority of the Earth’s fresh
Nearly 70 percent of the Earth’s fresh-water supply is locked up in the
icecaps of Antarctica and Greenland. The remaining fresh-water supply exists in
the atmosphere, streams, lakes, or groundwater and accounts for a mere 1 percent
of Earth’s total.
39. Which of Earth’s oceans is the largest?
The Pacific Ocean covers 64 million square miles (165 million square
kilometers). It is more than two times the size of the Atlantic. It has an
average depth of 2.4 miles (3.9 kilometers).
40. Why is Earth mostly crater-free compared to the pockmarked moon?
Earth is more active, in terms of both geology and weather. Much of our
planet’s geologic history was long ago folded back inside. Some of that is
regurgitated by volcanoes, but the results are pretty hard to study. Even more
recent events evident on the surface — craters that can by millions of years old
— get overgrown by vegetation, weathered by wind and rain, and modified by
earthquakes and landslides. The moon, meanwhile, is geologically quiet and has
almost no weather; its craters tell a billions-year-long tale of catastrophic
collisions. Interestingly, some of the oldest Earth rocks might be awaiting
discovery on the moon, having been blasted there billions of years ago by the
very asteroid impacts that rattle both worlds.
41. How much surface area does Earth contain?
There are 196,950,711 square miles (510,100,000 square kilometers).
42. What is the largest lake in the world?
By size and volume it is the Caspian Sea, located between southeast Europe
and west Asia.
43. Where do most earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur on Earth?
The majority occur along boundaries of the dozen or so major plates that
more or less float on the surface of Earth. One of the most active plate
boundaries where earthquakes and eruptions are frequent, for example, is around
the massive Pacific Plate commonly referred to as the Pacific Ring of Fire. It
fuels shaking and baking from Japan to Alaska to South America.
44. How hot are the planet’s innards?
The temperature of Earth increases about 36 degrees Fahrenheit (20 degrees
Celsius) for every kilometer (about 0.62 miles) you go down. Near the center,
its thought to be at least 7,000 degrees Fahrenheit (3,870 Celsius).
45. What three countries have the greatest number of historically active
The top three countries are Indonesia, Japan and the United States in
descending order of activity.
46. How many people worldwide are at risk from volcanoes?
As of the year 2000, USGS scientists estimated that volcanoes posed a
tangible risk to at least 500 million people. This is comparable to the entire
population of the world at the beginning of the seventeenth century!
47. Which of the following sources stores the greatest volume of fresh
water worldwide: lakes, streams or ground water?
Groundwater comprises a 30 times greater volume than all freshwater lakes,
and more than 3,000 times what’s in the world’s streams and rivers at any given
time. Groundwater is housed in natural underground aquifers, in which the water
typically runs around and through the stone and other material.
48. Which earthquake was larger, the 1906 San Francisco earthquake or the
1964 Anchorage, Alaska, temblor?
The Anchorage earthquake had a magnitude of 9.2, whereas the San Francisco
earthquake was a magnitude 7.8. This difference in magnitude equates to 125
times more energy being released in the 1964 quake and accounts for why the
Anchorage earthquake was felt over an area of almost 500,000 square miles
(1,295,000 square kilometers).
49. Which earthquake was more destructive in terms of loss of life and
relative damage costs, the 1906 San Francisco earthquake or the 1964 Anchorage
The 1906 San Francisco earthquake tops this category. It was responsible for
700 deaths vs. 114 from the Anchorage earthquake. Property damage in San
Francisco was also greater in relative terms due to the destructive fires that
destroyed mostly wooden structures of the time.
50. Is Earth’s core solid?
The inner portion of the core is thought to be solid. But the outer portion
of the core appears molten. We’ve never been there though, so scientists aren’t
sure of the exact composition. A radical Hollywoodlike idea was recently put
forth to blow a crack in the planet and send a probe down there to learn more.
An interesting bit of recent evidence shows Mars’ core may be similarly squishy.
Scientists figured this out by studying tides on Mars (tides on Mars?).
51. Does all of Earth spin at the same rate?
The solid inner core — a mass of iron comparable to the size of the moon —
spins faster than the outer portion of the iron core, which is liquid. A study
in 1996 showed that over the previous century, the extra speed caused the inner
core to gain a quarter-turn on the planet as a whole. So the inner core makes a
complete revolution with respect to the rest of Earth in about 400 years.
Immense pressure keeps it solid.
52. How many people have been killed by volcanoes during the last 500
At least 300,000. Between 1980 and 1990, volcanic activity killed at least
53. How much of Earth’s surface consists of volcanic rock?
Scientists estimate that more than three-quarters of Earth’s surface is of
volcanic origin — that is, rocks either erupted by volcanoes or molten rock that
cooled below ground and has subsequently been exposed at the surface. Most of
Earth’s volcanic rocks are found on the sea floor.
54. Can an earthquake cause a tsunami?
If the earthquake originates under the ocean, yes. Near the earthquake’s
epicenter, the sea floor rises and falls, pushing all the water above it up and
down. This motion produces a wave that travels outward in all directions. A
tsunami can be massive but remain relatively low in height in deep water. Upon
nearing the shore, it is forced up and can reach the height of tall buildings.
One in 1964 was triggered in Alaska and swamped the small Northern California
town of Crescent City, moving train cars several blocks and killing several
people there. Asteroids can cause tsunami, too.
55. Are all tsunamis high waves when they strike a coastline?
No, contrary to many artistic images of tsunamis, most do not result in
giant breaking waves. Rather, most tsunamis come onshore more like very strong
and fast tides. The water can rise higher than anyone along a given shore area
has ever seen, however.
56. How much of Earth’s land surface is desert?
57. What’s the deepest place in the ocean?
The greatest known depth is 36,198 feet (6.9 miles or 11 kilometers) at the
Mariana Trench, in the Pacific Ocean well south of Japan near the Mariana
58. What is the fastest surface wind ever recorded?
The fastest “regular” wind that’s widely agreed upon was 231 mph (372
kilometers per hour), recorded at Mount Washington, N.H., on April 12, 1934. But
during a May 1999 tornado in Oklahoma, researchers clocked the wind at 318 mph
(513 kilometers per hour). For comparison, Neptune’s winds can rage to 900 mph
(1,448 kilometers per hour).
59. How much fresh water is stored in the earth?
More than 2 million cubic miles of fresh water is stored in the planet,
nearly half of it within a half-mile of the surface. Mars, too, appears to have
a lot of water near its surface, but what’s been detected so far is locked up as
ice; nobody has estimated how much might be there.
60. How old is Earth?
Our planet is more than 4.5 billion years old, just a shade younger than the
sun. Recent evidence actually shows that Earth was formed much earlier than
previously believed, just 10 million years after the birth of the sun, a stellar
event typically put at 4.6 billion years ago.
61. What is the world’s largest desert?
The Sahara Desert in northern Africa is more than 23 times the size of
southern California’s Mojave Desert.
62. Which planet has more moons, Earth or Mars?
Mars has two satellites, Phobos and Deimos. Earth has only one natural
satellite, but it’s the moon. The outer planets have lots of moons, most of them
found fairly recently and leading to the possibility that scientists might one
day need to redefine what it means to be a moon.
63. What is the world’s deepest lake?
Lake Baikal in the south central part of Siberia is 5,712 feet (1.7
kilometers) deep. It’s about 20 million years old and contains 20 percent of
Earth’s fresh liquid water.
64. What is the origin of the word “volcano”?
It derives from Vulcan, the Roman god of fire.
65. How many minerals are known to exist?
There are roughly 4,000 known minerals, although only about 200 are of major
importance. Approximately 50-100 new minerals are described each year.
66. What is the total water supply of the world?
The total water supply of the world is 326 million cubic miles (1 cubic mile
of water equals more than 1 trillion gallons).
67. What is the world’s largest island?
Greenland covers 840,000 square miles (2,176,000 square kilometers).
Continents are typically defined as land masses made of low-density rock that
essentially floats on the molten material below. Greenland fits this
description, but it’s only about one-third the size of Australia. Some
scientists call Greenland an island, others say it’s a continent.
68. Where are most of Earth’s volcanoes?
The most prominent topographic feature on Earth is the immense volcanic
mountain chain that encircles the planet beneath the sea — the chain is more
than 30,000 miles (48,000 kilometers) long and rises an average of 18,000 feet
(5.5 kilometers) above the seafloor. It is called the mid-ocean ridge and is
where Earth’s plates spread apart as new crust bubbles up — volcanic activity.
There are more volcanoes here than on land. The spreading, however, leads to
scrunching when these plates slam into the continents. The result: more
volcanoes and earthquakes in places like California and Japan.
69. What volcano killed the most people?
The eruption of Tambora volcano in Indonesia in 1815 is estimated to have
killed 90,000 people. Most died from starvation after the eruption, though,
because of widespread crop destruction, and from water contamination and
70. Were Earth and the moon separated at birth?
Not quite. But leading theory holds that our favorite satellite was carved
partly from Earth shortly after the Earth formed. A Mars-sized object slammed
into our fledgling planet. The impactor was destroyed. Stuff flew everywhere and
a lot of it went into orbit around Earth. The moon gathered itself together out
of the largely vaporized remains of the collision, while Earth hung in there
pretty much intact.
71. How many lightning strikes occur worldwide every second?
On average, about 100. Those are just the ones that hit the ground, though.
During any given minute, there are more than a thousand thunderstorms around
Earth causing some 6,000 flashes of lightning. A lot of it goes from cloud to
72. Are rivers alive?
Not in the traditional sense, of course. But like all living creatures,
rivers have a life span. They are born, grow in size, and they age. They can
even die during the span of geological time.
73. Can asteroids create islands?
Speculation has existed for decades that ancient asteroid impacts might
create hot spots of volcanic activity, which could give rise to mountains that
poke up through seas that didn’t used to be there. There’s no firm answer to
this question, but a recent computer model suggested Hawaii might have been
formed in this manner.
74. Is the state of Louisiana growing or shrinking?
Louisiana loses about 30 square miles (78 square kilometers) of land each
year to coastal erosion, hurricanes, other natural and human causes and a thing
called subsidence, which means sinking. Much of New Orleans actually sits 11
feet (3.4 meters) below sea level. Parts of the French quarter have sunk 2 feet
in the past six decades. The city is protected by dikes, but all experts agree
that storm tides from a direct hit by a major hurricane would breach the system
and swamp much of the city. In 2000, the director of the U.S. Geological Survey,
Chip Groat, said: “With the projected rate of subsidence, wetland loss and
sea-level rise, New Orleans will likely be on the verge of extinction by this
time next century.”
75. How much would seas rise if the Antarctic Ice Sheet melted?
The Antarctic Ice Sheet holds nearly 90 percent of the world’s ice and 70
percent of its fresh water. If the entire ice sheet were to melt, sea level
would rise by nearly 220 feet, or the height of a 20-story building. Scientists
know there’s a melting trend under way. The United Nations has said that in a
worst-case scenario — depending on how much global air temperatures increase —
seas could jump 3 feet (1 meter) by 2100.
76. Is ice a mineral?
Yes, ice is a mineral and is formally described as such in Dana’s System of
77. What is the softest of all minerals?
Talc is the softest of minerals. It is commonly used to make talcum powder.
78. What is the hardest of all minerals?
The one that becomes emotionally useless after a divorce but still retains
79. How are colors produced in fireworks?
Mineral elements taken from Earth provide the colors. Strontium yields deep
reds, copper produces blue, sodium yields yellow, and iron filings and charcoal
pieces produce gold sparks. Bright flashes and loud bangs come from aluminum
80. Does Earth have the worst weather in the solar system?
Right now, it’s the worst that most humans I know ever experience. But
there’s lots of wilder weather elsewhere. Mars can whip up hurricanelike storms
four times bigger than Texas. Dust storms on the Red Planet can obscure the
entire globe! Jupiter has a hurricane twice the size our entire planet, and it’s
lasted for at least three centuries (another storm on Jupiter is even bigger).
Venus is a living hell, and Pluto is routinely more frigid than the coldest
place on Earth (though may change one day, and Pluto may in fact become the last
oasis for life).
81. Where are the highest tides?
In Burntcoat Head, Minas Basin, part of the Bay of Fundy in Nova Scotia,
tides can range 38.4 feet (11.7 meters). The bay is funnel-shaped — its bottom
slopes upward continuously from the ocean inlet. The result is an extreme “tidal
bore,” a wavelike phenomenon at the leading edge of the changing tide. Bores in
Fundy can travel up feeder rivers at 8 mph (13 kilometers per hour) and be more
than 3 feet (1 meter) tall.
82. Where is the world’s only equatorial glacier?
Mount Cotopaxi in Ecuador supports the only glacier on the equator.
83. What is the largest lake in North America?
84. What’s the deadliest hurricane to ever hit the United States?
A Category 4 hurricane hit Galveston, Texas in 1900 and killed more than
6,000 people. The next closest death toll was less than 1,900 from a 1928
85. What is the longest mountain chain on Earth?
The Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which splits nearly the entire Atlantic Ocean north
to south. Iceland is one place where this submarine mountain chain rises above
the sea surface.
86. How much gold has been discovered worldwide to date?
More than 193,000 metric tons (425 million pounds). If you stuck it all
together, it would make a cube-shaped, seven-story structure that might resemble
one of Donald Trump’s buildings. First you’d have to find all those rings that
have gone down the drain.
87. What are the two major gold-producing countries?
South Africa produces 5,300 metric tons per year, and the United States
produces more than 3,200 metric tons.
88. What North American plant can live for thousands of years?
The creosote bush, which grows in the Mojave, Sonoran, and Chihuahuan
deserts, has been shown by radiocarbon dating to have lived since the birth of
Christ. Some of these plants may endure 10,000 years, scientists say. If only
they could talk.
89. On average, how much water is used worldwide each day?
About 400 billion gallons.
90. Is Saturn the only ringed planet?
Saturn has the most obvious rings. But Jupiter and Neptune both have subtle
ring systems. And even Earth may once have been a ringed planet, the result of
some space rock’s glancing blow.
91. What is the highest, driest, and coldest continent on Earth?
That would be Antarctica.
92. At what depth do most earthquakes occur?
Most are triggered less than 50 miles (80 kilometers) from Earth’s surface.
Shallower earthquakes have more damage potential, but a temblor’s destruction
also depends largely on rock and soil conditions as well as building methods.
93. Where are the oldest rocks on Earth found?
Since the ocean floor is being continually regenerated as the continental
plates move across Earth’s surface, the oldest rocks on the ocean floor are less
than 300 million years. In contrast, the oldest continental rocks are 4.5
billion years old.
94. What percentage of the world’s fresh water is stored as glacial ice?
About 70 percent. And if you had to replace it all, you’d need 60 years of
the entire globe’s rainfall, and then you’d have to figure out a way to freeze
95. What is the largest alpine lake in North America?
Lake Tahoe on the California-Nevada border has a 105,000-acre surface, holds
39 trillion gallons of water, and is almost 1,600 feet (488 meters) deep.
96. Have there always been continents?
Not as we know them today. Many scientists figure Earth began as one huge
continent — dry as a bone. Water was delivered in comets, the thinking goes, and
the oceans developed. Much more recently, all the world’s land masses were
huddled into one supercontinent called Pangaea.
It began to break up about 225 million years ago, eventually fragmenting into
the continents as we know them today.
97. How much volcanic ash can fall in a day?
I can only give an example. During the nine-hour period of most vigorous
activity on May 18, 1980, Mount St. Helens dumped more than 540 million tons of
ash over an area of more than 22,000 square miles (56,980 square kilometers). It
was the most destructive volcanic eruption known to occur in the United States.
Fifty-seven people were killed by the eruption including USGS scientist David
Johnston, who was at a monitoring site 5 miles (8 kilometers) from the volcano.
An estimated $1 billion damage was caused by the eruption, through mudflows and
landslides as well as what fell from the sky.
98. What is feldspar?
A better question might be, “Who but a geologists could love feldspar?” It
happens to be the most common mineral in Earth’s crust. But I couldn’t find
anything about it that most of us really need to know.
99. What are the most extreme locations in the United States, compasswise?
This one is a bit tricky, and as it turns out three or even four of the
answers may catch you off guard.
The westernmost point is the aptly named West Point of Amatignak Island, Alaska.
The northernmost point is Point Barrow, Alaska. The southernmost point is the
southern tip of the island of Hawaii. The easternmost point — go ahead, take a
guess! — is Pochnoi Point at Semisopochnoi, Alaska. Huh? Look at a world map.
The tip of the Aleutian Islands lies east of the 180-degree longitude line — the
International Dateline — putting Pochnoi Point barely but officially in the
100. If you were to arrange Earth, the moon and Mars like Matryoshka
nesting dolls, how would they be ordered?
Mars would nest inside Earth, and the moon would fit neatly inside Mars.
Earth is about twice as big as Mars, which is about twice as big as the Moon.
101. Will Earth always be here?
Astronomers know that over the next few billion years, the sun will swell so
large as to envelop Earth. If we’re still here, we’ll probably fry and the
planet will be vaporized. There’s a chance, however, that the changing mass of
the sun will cause Earth to move into a more distant and pleasant orbit. One
mathematical calculation shows it would be theoretically possible for humans to
engineer such a move before it’s too late.
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